Founded in 1858 in Louisville, Kentucky, the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) promotes independence of blind and visually impaired persons by providing specialized materials, products, and services needed for education and life. APH manufactures textbooks and other educational publications for students who are visually impaired. APH also provides publications useful to adults, such as cookbooks and dictionaries. In addition, APH creates recorded books on a contract basis. APH develops and manufactures hundreds of products, tools, and supplies that support students and adults who are visually impaired and increase their independence.